06 December 2008

More Evidence-Greenland Vikings and Climate Change

During the summer of 2008, Knut Espen Solberg, of Norway, leader of the 'Melting Arctic' project, reported finding a heretofore uncharted Viking site farther north on Greenland than any discovered previously. http://www.archaeology.eu.com/weblog/2008_07_01_archaeologyeu_archive.html This find was made possible because of recent ice melt exposing areas of the beach normally covered in ice at all times of the year.


His team, which included an archaeologist who apparently made the initial assessment, found a large stone pier and stone buildings. His REUTERS report, 28JULY2008, is very interesting to me for two reasons. He made reference to (1)the climate of the medieval period and (2)the presence of the ruins of several stone dwellings nearby. The latter is of significance because he makes the statement that 'Both Inuit and Vikings had similar building styles.'


Now, this might be explained by saying that there are only so many ways to erect such a stone building, or, and this is my contention: the natives and Vikings were living together-they had assimilated. He also states that the natives were Inuit. The Inuit did not arrive on Greenland until late in the 12th century so the Viking's companions could have been Tornit (Tuniit), remnants of the Dorset culture. This question will be answered when the dwellings are positively dated by subsequent research.


I include a link to the quoted article for the interested reader: http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/science/20080728-0828-greenland-vikings.html as well as a bit about Solberg himself. http://nunatsiaq.com/archives/41224/news/features/41224_01.html It would seem that he leads a most interesting life.


By reading my previous blogs you will see that I, too, have made reference to these topics, so Solberg's find is of special importance to my writing: http://www.vinlandpublishing.com/ and research on the medieval Greenland Norse people.


28 October 2008

The Medieval Greenland Vikings Can Teach Us About Climate Change

The Northern Hemisphere of this planet is in a normal warming cycle. It began to manifest itself as the preceding cycle, the Mini-Ice Age (1300-1800), wound down about the mid-19th century. Nothing in global climate happens overnight. Each cycle is of about 500-years duration. With that assumption, we can say that the midpoint of this warming cycle that we are enjoying will be about 2100. In other words, historically speaking, we can expect the climate to gradually trend toward warmer and dryer for the next 92-years. Then it might get worse, historically speaking that is.

The advent of the Medieval Warm Period (800-1300) gave rise to the Viking Age (793-1150).The warmer weather increased production of everything the Vikings ate. Populations among the Viking tribes burgeoned dramatically. This eventually led to thoughts of expansion and conquest; the norm throughout human history. The ice-locked fjords began to clear earlier in the season than normal. The length of the raiding and trading season continued to increase over the 500-year period of the Medieval Warm Period. The Vikings exploded out over the north and western Atlantic Ocean, settling Iceland, Greenland, and areas of northeastern North America. The five hundred years of comparatively benign weather during the Medieval Warm Period fostered the Viking Age. Earth's next weather cycle, the Mini-Ice Age (1300-1800), played a major roll in ending it, especially for isolated--from the homeland--Norse Greenland. The Greenland Norse lifestyle could not be maintained in the face of Climate Change and a changing environment--starvation loomed. Of all the single-cause explanations for the death of Norse Greenland, Climate Change has been the most durable. (Thomas McGovern, Vikings, The North Atlantic Saga, The Demise of Norse Greenland, 2000-Smithsonian Institution, 330-331.)

Now, if the present global Climate Change cycle - Global Warming - is our responsibility, you know carbon offsets, CO2, and whatnot, if we caused this calamity, how do you explain the Medieval Warm Period (800-1300)? It was warmer in the Northern Hemisphere then than it is now. Perhaps the Vikings, the Greenland Norse people whom I write about caused it with their peat fires, flatulent livestock, and whatnot. Sounds ridiculous, huh? It is ridiculous. They had nothing more to do with their natural planetary climate cycle then, than we do with ours today. Remember, all of this climate stuff has happened before. It has been happening for 18,000-years that we know about.

The sun and the oceans working in concert control the weather on this planet. Without this synergy, much of the inhabited areas of the northern and southern hemispheres would be uninhabitable. Simplistically speaking, the sun transmits most of its solar radiation to the earth along the equatorial belt, heating the oceans of the world and setting up out flowing currents that emanate north and south from the equator. At the same time, cold water from the Polar Regions sinks to the ocean floor establishing a flow pattern in the direction of the equator as they under ride the warm water flowing on the surface. Therefore, under ideal conditions a massive exchange of hot water from the equator and cold water from the poles occurs, giving us hominids the benign weather conditions that we enjoy over much of this planet.

All of this circulation occurs automatically because of the forces at play, hydrodynamics in other words. With Climate Change, the dynamics change. British scientists have reported that the warm water currents flowing toward northwestern Europe have declined by 30% since the 1950's. There also appears to be a 50% reduction in the amount of cold water flowing from the poles. Computer models of this dynamic predict that the North Atlantic current will cease to exist in 50-100 years. National Geographic News, James Owen, November 30, 2005. The same article points to the fact that the melting Arctic and Antarctic ice is diluting the salt water of the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans. The dynamic of circulation dependent on sinking cold water flowing south from the North Pole, or north from the South Pole, to bring the warm water of the equatorial seas north and south, is stalling as a result. This fact will make the northern and southern hemisphere much colder within the next 50-100 years.

Now there are six billion of us, give or take. The fastest growing populations have the least: they are deficit societies. People in Africa--all of the continent--the Indian sub-continent, much of continental Asia, Asia Minor, much of South and Central America, all of Mexico, every island in the Caribbean--well, you get the picture. Like rats or lemmings, we are positioning ourselves for disaster on a scale that defies comprehension. Can we feed the world, save the disenfranchised? NO! In the final analysis why would we? Our survival would be compromised. Shortages are like a snowball rolling down a hill, they are cumulative. Food shortages will translate to less food to send to feed the populations of all the undeveloped countries that we already support, because they cannot feed themselves; we will keep what we have for ourselves; and nature will take its course with them-they will begin to starve.

Entrepreneurs and scientists are playing the well-meaning, misinformed, easily manipulated, masses of earthlings like the proverbial banjo. Why, you might ask? Because the politics of human-caused global warming offer enormous profit potential.

14 October 2008

Human Migration - The Arctic and North America During the Mini-Ice Age

From 1200-1800, Greenland and northern North America experienced climate change caused human and animal migration that has not been repeated to the present day. The climate in these areas began to change dramatically during the one to two centuries of the latter half of the Medieval Warm Period (700-1200) and the onset of the next natural climate cycle, the Mini-Ice Age (1300-1800).

The Greenland Norse, whom I write about, and the pre-historical ancestors of certain northern American Indian tribes, depended on large land and littoral animal species for their existence. As the climate decayed from the benign temperatures of the Medieval Warm Period, inland ice and snow pack and coastal sea icepack would have increased with the onset of the Mini-Ice Age. The animals affected would move gradually south to ensure their own survival. Humans who depended on them, moved with them.

A study of Indian language groups reveals that massive human migration occurred on the North American continent during the Mini-Ice Age. It is virtually impossible to determine origin and relationships between the tribal bands because of the mixing of peoples that occurred as a result of this climate induced forced migration.

I am specifically interested in the Algonquian, Iroquoian, and Athapascan language groups, because the people speaking these languages would have had contact with the Greenland Norse settlers in my Axe of Iron series of novels, as the Norse moved south with them.

To offer credence to my contention of climate-caused human migration I offer the case of the contemporary Cree and Ojibwe Indians, both tribes are Algonquian speakers. Their pre-historical ancestors, the Naskapi and Anishinabeg respectively, play a major role in my novels, for they originated along the shorelines and inland areas of Hudson Bay/James Bay, where my first novel, Axe of Iron - The Settlers, takes place. Their ancestors, fleeing the climate onslaught from the north, spread out over the present day upper Midwest and Great Plains of the United States, where many of them remain to this day.

Others eventually made their way back north, again following their food source, as the climate moderated with the cycle that we enjoy today.

The Haudenosaunee, pre-historical ancestors of the Iroquois Indians, also contacted my Greenland Norse settlers during the period, but you will have to read my books to know how and where that association occurred.

I also offer the present day Navajo and Apache Indian tribes as an example of the mixing of cultures that occurred on this continent during the period. These indigenous people did not originate where they now reside, the American southwest. Their language is Athapascan and their pre-historical ancestors originated somewhere in what is now Canada. Their journey south began near the onset of the Mini-Ice Age, or about 1200.

As these nomadic warrior people took up residence in the southwest they came in contact with agrarian societies that were already there, such as the people we know only as Anasazi. Their invasion no doubt forced the Anasazi to develop the fortified cliff-dwellings - Mesa Verde for example - that they later abandoned as the onslaught of the warrior societies continued. This combined with the drought throughout the southwest that resulted during the period finally overcame their civilization.

Much happened on this continent as a direct result of climate-caused human migration during pre-history. The same thing will happen to contemporary humans - us - during the present natural climate cycle, as global climatic conditions dictate. The stark contrast will be that we will not be able to migrate, as our ancestors did, for we are too, many.

30 September 2008

The Medieval Greenland Viking Association with Pre-historical Indian Tribes of North America

Between 986 and 1425, the generally accepted 500-year longevity of the medieval Norse settlements on the island of Greenland, a gradual assimilation process began with the native peoples of the Arctic and present-day North America that culminated in the disappearance from history of all 4000 of the Norse settlers. What happened to them has been a source of contention ever since-nobody knows to this day. We know three aspects of their disappearance with fair certainty: they did not die out, they did not voyage back to Europe, and they did not simply disappear. A process of gradual assimilation had existed with the Thule people of Baffin and Ellesmere Islands, in the Canadian Arctic, since the early years of the Greenland settlements. It only made sense to join with the people who already knew how to survive in this harsh new land. This assimilation process no doubt continued with other native populations further south throughout the following centuries. Those who remained on Greenland to the end finally had no choice but to migrate or face slow starvation. Common sense would indicate they went to North America as it is the nearest land mass from the two Norse settlements on southwestern Greenland and they already had a familiarity developed through long association.

European explorers from the 16th through 19th centuries reported seeing blue-eyed blonde and redheaded people living with the natives of the Canadian Arctic early in the period. Later in the period, four different expeditions found the same situation along the river systems of the central United States, stating in their journals that certain tribes appeared to be of mixed white and native origin. These explorers also reported practices among those tribes of mixed blood completely out of keeping with what they had noted among other tribes that did not appear to be of mixed blood. We have known of these mysteries for at least two centuries, but no investigation has undertaken to provide positive proof of where the white blood originated.

I am writing a five volume series that specifically speaks, in a character-driven, historical fiction sense, to some of the mysteries and legends surrounding the Indian people of southeastern Canada and the north central United States and the possibility of a deep-seated association with the Greenland Vikings. The first book of the series, Axe of Iron – The Settlers was published in August 2008. The next book, Axe of Iron – Confrontation will publish during the winter of 2008/2009. Both of these books take place in the Canadian province of Quebec more than 1000-years ago. My series present a plausible answer to many native customs and beliefs that could only have developed through a close association with the Norse Greenland settlers. Space herein precludes my going into the details of my contention in this regard, but my continuing series covers most, if not all, of what a lifetime of research on the subject has revealed to me. Contentions are opinions and mine are no different. I cannot prove any of it, but nobody can disprove it either and therein lay the bones of a good story.

I believe that you will find that I have offered plausible explanations to many of the questions left unanswered by conventional archaeology. My series is not a dry history of these events; rather it is an intensely engaging story of what may have happened on the North American continent during pre-historical time between the indigenous natives and a large, mixed group of Greenland Norse people whose goal was to survive during a most difficult time in history. The characters carry the story and you will see it through their eyes.

The Historical Perspective in the first book of the series, Axe of Iron – The Settlers provides historical data to support the basis of my contentions about what may have happened in southern Quebec and areas of the north central United States 1000-years ago. The last two paragraphs of the Historical Perspective probably sum it up best: 'more than 30 – generations have elapsed since they came to this continent. Now their very existence, everything they accomplished, has faded from the collective memory of all the peoples they contacted and lived among. I prefer to believe the four thousand live on however, their genetic makeup diluted by the intervening centuries of time. They are still here, smiling back at us from the faces of the Inuit Greenlanders, Cree, Ojibwe, and Iroquois with whom they joined so long ago.'

***

04 September 2008

Is It Global Warming Or Global Cooling?

In case it has escaped your notice, the weather in the U.S. was cooler this spring than normal and this condition persisted longer. The southwest, where I reside, was so cool this spring that all farm crops and garden produce are 3-4 weeks late. So what you might say, that doesn't affect me. But, actually it does affect you, with higher food prices, less fresh food when it is normally available, not to mention the threat of food shortages for the shortened growing season. To put it simply, many crop species may not have sufficient time to reach maturity before the first freeze. Here in the Rocky Mountain West we can expect a killing frost sometime this month-September.

Shortages are like a snowball rolling down a hill, they are cumulative. Food shortages will translate to less food to send to feed the populations of all the undeveloped countries that we already support because they cannot feed themselves; we will keep what we have for ourselves; and nature will take its course with them-they will begin to starve.

Farmer's Almanac predicts a colder winter this year, 2008-2009, both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans are 2° colder than normal, and there are no sunspots at all. All portents for a cold winter, a cool spring, a cooler than normal summer, well, you get the idea-cumulative.

Remember, all of this climate stuff has happened before. It has been happening for 18,000-years. Most recently the Mini-Ice Age and the Medieval Warm Period that allowed the Viking Age, a portion of which I write about, to occur.

For those of you with an interest in life on this planet, beyond Big Macs, football, days-off, and so forth, I recommend that you click the link that I have prepared for you. I think you will find the data therein to be electrifying: Global Warming

15 August 2008

The Hype of Climate Change

The American Southwest, where I reside, has been in the throes of drought since about 1978. Certainly there have been years of normal - whatever that means - or greater moisture, but the trend is drought. The winter of 2007-2008 notwithstanding, we can expect the general climatic trend to continue.

The Northern Hemisphere of this planet is in a normal warming cycle. It began to manifest itself as the preceding cycle, the Mini-Ice Age (1300-1800), wound down about the mid-19th century. However, the coldest period of the Mini-Ice Age were the years 1560-1850. You sharp readers will have noted that the year 1560 happens to coincide with the mid-point of the 500-year cycle, the year that the most intense cold began. Nothing in global climate happens overnight. Each cycle is of about 500-years duration. With that assumption we can say that the midpoint of this warming cycle that we are enjoying will be about 2100. In other words, historically speaking, we can expect the climate to gradually trend toward warmer and dryer for the next 92-years. Then it might get worse, historically speaking that is.

At the same time, some areas of the planet will become cooler and wetter for that is how it all works. You know, the ocean currents and the sun. Why, they may play and even larger part than we do. Think of it. It is mind-numbing, huh?

Now, if the global climate change cycle - Global Warming - is our responsibility, you know carbon offsets, CO2, and whatnot, if we caused this calamity, how do you explain the Medieval Warm Period (800-1300)?

It was warmer in the Northern Hemisphere then than it is now. Perhaps the Vikings, the Greenland Norse people whom I write about caused it with their peat fires, flatulent livestock, and whatnot. Sounds ridiculous, huh? It is ridiculous. They had no more to do with their natural planetary climate cycle then, than we do with ours today.

Entrepreneurs and scientists are playing the well-meaning, misinformed, easily-manipulated, masses of earthlings like the proverbial banjo. Why, you might ask? Because the politics of human-caused global warming offer enormous profit potential.

You are being scammed folks. How does it feel?

07 August 2008

The Viking Propensity To Assimilate

As I have noted in earlier posts, some of the medieval Greenland Norse assimilated with the natives of North America at least as early as the 12th century. I believe it will eventually be proven that this process began soon after the Norse settlements were founded on Greenland in 986 by Eirik Thorvaldsson.

It seems that assimilation with the native peoples also began occurring with their Viking brethren on the European continent by the 11th century. After a couple generations of conflict they stopped returning to the homeland.

They began to permanently settle with the the inhabitants of lands that they conquered and/or traded with from Ireland to Russia, adopting their languages and customs. Researchers at the universities of Leicester and Nottingham, in England, recently found that up to half the DNA from men in northwest England matches Scandinavian genetic types. Raiders or Traders? Andrew Curry, (Smithsonian Magazine, New York, NY, July 2008 - 29).

To check the proliferation of the Norse DNA Haplogroup throughout the medieval world, I recommend clicking on the link to an excellent WIKI article on the subject: R1a1

The Viking Age endured about 400-years. During these centuries the men gradually stopped returning to the homelands at the conclusion of each summer's season of raiding and trading. The distances became too great, the voyages too hazardous as the Mini-Ice Age settled over their areas of influence in the northern hemisphere.

The process of assimilation throughout the Viking World, from Constantinople and North Africa, across the North Atlantic Ocean to Greenland and L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland finally ensured that the sun would set on the young men who had gone iviking.

29 July 2008

The Agenda Behind Human Caused Climate Change

Once the politicians grab hold of something it inevitably costs the taxpayers money and no meaningful solution to the problem, assuming a problem existed in the first place, is ever found. Why find a solution? That would close the tap on the flow of tax revenues. Look at all three branches of the United States government, they are in virtual gridlock. The country would be better served if all of them would just go home.

A case is point is the hype over human-caused global climate change. Politicians worldwide are jumping on the bandwagon. Cities are going green, the limp-wristed, mindless, minions of the largest hoax ever perpetrated on the human race are counting carbon footprints, and legions of self-serving entrepreneurs are climbing out from under their rocks on every hand to save the masses. FROM WHAT ARE THEY SAVING US?

Scientists are lining up with their hands out for the billions of tax dollars that will fund the research programs that will purport to find a solution to save the planet from human-induced mass suicide. You cannot blame the scientists for adopting a self-serving agenda. After all, what use would they be without research dollars to fund their efforts?

Let me couch that a different way: you are being fed a lie to further a political agenda and promote research to perhaps find a solution to a natural cycle over which we humans have no control whatsoever.

That's right, we didn't cause it and we certainly can't fix it anymore than the medieval Greenland Norse caused or fixed the last warm climate period over 1000-years ago. I write about what may have happened to them; they had to adapt to the changes or perish. And so will we.

Certainly we are in a climatic cycle. They have been going on for all of this planet's history. Someday, a cycle will destroy all life on this planet again, including we puny humans. Maybe this is the one, who can say? Nobody can, but they will try to convince you otherwise.

The Internet has a wealth of scientific data and other information on climate change. Educate yourself, don't believe the pundits of human-caused climate change, for they are lying to you.

To begin, you might check out this site: Global Warming, A Chilling Perspective.

10 July 2008

Why the Greenland Norse Settlements Failed

The reasons for the failure of the medieval Norse settlements on Greenland - Eiriksfjord and Lysufjord - are no doubt many and varied, but the following probably contributed directly to their demise.

  • Climate change - During the 500-year history of the settlements it is believed that climate change had the most profound and irreversible affect. The Greenland Norse would have seen the winters progressively worsen until shipborne travel became either too dangerous or impossible sometime in the 14th or 15th century.
  • Trade with the Scandinavian homelands was vital to the continued success of the settlements. Without it they could not obtain items deemed essential to continue their Norse lifestyle. Walrus and narwhal ivory, walrus hide, and specialty items such as falcons, polar bear cubs, and polar bear hides, were the principal trade goods produced by the settlements. The advent of African and Indian elephant ivory doomed trade in the ivory from the settlements, their most valued commodity.
  • The long, dangerous sea voyages from Greenland, to Iceland, and the Scandinavian homeland ended sometime in the 14th or 15th century as the weather in the northern hemisphere steadily worsened with the onset of the Mini-Ice Age.
  • The settlers agrarian lifestyles and their failure to abandon European practices of animal husbandry served to drive the last nail in their coffin. The Western Settlement at Lysufjord was abandoned first, sometime in the early years of the 14th century the few holdouts left for good, never to be seen again. About 100-years later the Eastern Settlement at Eiriksfjord was abandoned.

The Mini-Ice Age, about 1300-1800, descended with a vengeance on the northern hemisphere. The extreme winter weather of this period caused human migration throughout the northern hemisphere. The extreme winter weather during the 19th century prompted 1/3 of the population of Sweden to migrate or face starvation.

The same situation faced the remnants of the Greenland Norse settlements in the 13th-15th centuries. They could either wait for the specter of starvation to claim them or they could follow their predecessors to North America. What would you do in their place?

26 June 2008

The Assimilation of The Greenland Norse With Native Peoples


As I have mentioned in other writings, sooner or later some group of scientists will undertake to sample the mtDNA of certain native peoples of southeastern Canada, including the Cree of the Ungava Peninsula of Quebec, and the northeastern United States for Norse genetic markers.
Such a study is the only way to finally put to rest the 1000-year old mystery of what happened to the Greenland Norse settlers.
This effort should concentrate on a cross section of pure blooded members of the Cree, Ojibwa, and Iroquois Indian tribes. I submit that Norse genetic markers will be found in these Indians as they have been found in the male Inuit(Y-chromosome) of Greenland, although none have been found in female Inuit.
The Greenland Norse, Niels Linnerup and Søren Nørby (Laboratory of Biological Anthropology, University of Denmark, Copenhagen, 2002) 107
This work will no doubt continue and extend into other areas of the Canadian Arctic.
Given the tremendous distances involved, the high cost of travel in the Arctic, primitive conditions, and the shortness of the summer season, it seems plausible that DNA studies will prove to be cheaper than archaeological excavations.

21 June 2008

Climate Change and the Greenland Norse


About 700 AD, the advent of the Medieval Warm Period(700-1200)gave rise to the Viking Age, ultimately leading to the attack on the monastery at Lindesfarne, an island off the northeastern coast of England in 793.

The warmer weather increased production of everything they ate. Populations among the Viking tribes burgeoned dramatically. This eventually led to thoughts of expansion and conquest; the norm throughout human history.

The ice-locked fjords began to clear earlier in the season than normal, allowing the Northmen to sail from their northern fjords to go iviking. The length of the raiding and trading season continued to increase over the 500-year period of the Medieval Warm Period.

While all this Viking activity continued in the homelands of the Norse people and over much of what is now modern Europe, about 870, Norse settlers reached Iceland. Many more followed the original settlers; the population continued to grow until all the good land was occupied.

The Vikings exploded out over the north and western Atlantic Ocean as a consequence.

In 986, Eirik the Red sailed from Iceland with 25-ships loaded with settlers and their goods. Fourteen ships made it safely to Greenland.

Thus began the 500-year saga of the Norse Greenland settlements.

The five hundred years of comparatively benign weather during the Medieval Warm Period fostered the Viking Age. Earth's next weather cycle, the Mini-Ice Age(1300-1800), played a major roll in ending it, especially for isolated--from the homeland--Norse Greenland.

The northern hemisphere became colder and colder as the Mini-Ice Age increased in ferocity.

The Greenland Norse lifestyle could not be maintained in the face of Climate Change and a changing environment--starvation loomed.

Finally, sometime in the early 15th century, the last holdouts on Greenland joined their brethren in North America.

The Norse people of Greenland joined with the native peoples of North America, never to be seen again.
http://www.vinlandpublishing.com/

20 June 2008

Assimilation Between Greenland Norse and Arctic Natives?


Some of the many unanswered questions about the Greenland Norse: did they assimilate with the natives of the Canadian Arctic?

If so, when and with whom?

We can never know for certain, but by about 1425 all had disappeared from the Greenland settlements. As I have mentioned previously, they were not seen again. They disappeared: no bodies, no ships, no tools, nothing related to them has ever been found.

Two distinct Arctic native cultures are involved with the Greenland Norse, the Dorset, or Tuniit people, and later in about the 13th century, the Thule, or Inuit people migrating from what is now the western Canadian Arctic regions.

In support of my contention that a gradual process of assimilation with these native cultures of the Arctic. and the natives of North America, began early in the history of the Greenland Norse settlements I make reference to numerous Norse artifacts found in medieval Thule dwelling sites on the east coast of Ellesmere Island and Skraeling Island, at the head of Alexandra Fjord on Ellesmere's east coast.

I do not mean the odd spindle whorl, ship rivet, broken needle fragment, or a couple links of chain mail. There are too, many artifacts to list here: a complete carpenters plane, iron wedge, ship rivets, knife and spear blades, wool wadmal cloth, numerous pieces of chain mail(all thought to have a common origin), odd gaming pieces, and so forth. These artifacts have been carbon dated to the mid-13th century.
Ellesmere - Vikings in the Far North, Peter Schledermann, 1977-1980. Vikings, The North Atlantic Saga, William Fitzhugh and Elizabeth Ward, (Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington DC, 2000)248-256.

So, the answer to the question is obvious. The Greenland Norse did regularly contact the native peoples of the Arctic and that contact was prolonged and intimate, because the artifacts were found in Thule house ruins.

Those particular Norse people had already assimilated.
http://www.vinlandpublishing.com/

10 June 2008

Global Oceanic Currents And Climate Change


The hand wringers of climate change refer to the present scenario as Global Warming. Something else is also happening. We can call this scenario Global Cooling. The two work together because that is how the planetary climate engine works. You cannot have one without the other.

The weather on this planet is controlled by the sun and the oceans working in concert. Without this synergy much of the inhabited areas of the northern and southern hemispheres would be uninhabitable.

Simplistically speaking, the sun transmits most of its solar radiation to the earth along the equatorial belt, heating the oceans of the world and setting up outflowing currents that emanate north and south from the equator. At the same time, cold water from the polar regions sinks to the ocean floor establishing a flow pattern in the direction of the equator as they under ride the warm water flowing on the surface.

So, under ideal conditions a massive exchange of hot water from the equator and cold water from the poles occurs, giving we hominids the benign weather conditions that we enjoy over much of this planet.

All of this circulation occurs automatically because of the forces at play, hydrodynamics in other words. With climate change the dynamics change. British scientists have reported that the warm water currents flowing toward northwestern Europe have declined by 30% since the 1950's. There also appears to be a 50% reduction in the amount of cold water flowing from the poles. Computer models of this dynamic predict that the North Atlantic current will cease to exist in 50-100 years. National Geographic News, James Owen, November 30, 2005.

The same article points to the fact that the melting Arctic and Antarctic ice is diluting the salt water of the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans. The dynamic of circulation dependent on sinking cold water flowing south from the north pole, or north from the south pole, to bring the warm water of the equatorial seas north and south, is stalling as a result.

This fact will make the northern and southern hemisphere much colder within the next 50-100 years. The last time we humans had a warm cycle, the Medieval Warm Period, led into the Mini Ice Age, a period when life in the northern and the southern hemisphere became difficult at best.

Now there are 6B people on the planet. Will the mechanics of global climate change have an impact on us? Absolutely! We can expect war, pestilence, and famine to occur on an unprecedented scale. What can we do about it? Very little. That will become abundantly clear as conditions worsen in the marginal areas of this planet, where the huddled masses of the have-nots reside. http://www.vinlandpublishing.com/

04 June 2008

Climate Change and Famine


How would you like to awaken to headlines screaming: Famine Widespread. Millions Dying of Starvation?

Brace yourselves!

There are six billion of us, give or take. The fastest growing populations have the least: they are deficit societies. People in Africa--all of the continent--the Indian sub-continent, much of continental Asia, Asia Minor, much of South and Central America, all of Mexico, every island in the Caribbean--well, you get the picture, surely.

Like rats or lemmings, "we the people," are positioning ourselves for disaster on a scale that defies comprehension. Can we feed the world, save the disenfranchised? NO! In the final analysis why would we? Our survival would be compromised.

The minions of human-caused-global-warming are nattering about flatulence in hogs, cattle, horses, people who eat too many beans, methane belches from swamps, glaciers breaking up and melting, polar bears, walrus habitat, and so on and so forth. They are focused on carbon footprints for all of the 6B Homo sapiens. I wonder, do they really believe that even a minuscule percentage of these masses even know about carbon footprint, or care for that matter? Of course they don't. Furthermore they will not have heard the term before they succumb to starvation.

Food, my friends, not gasoline, certainly not carbon footprints, will become the "buzz" for those Homo sapiens who have not become, dare I say, carbon footprints.

A large American conglomerate has been focusing on food production for some time now. I won't identify them, except to say that their acronym begins with the letter "A." Suffice to say that they have been quietly gobbling up productive farmland for many years. Why? Food, my friends. They want to control the availability of food. And, they will.

War, Pestilence, and Famine are the three natural population controls. All three will be visited on the world populations in the areas that I have mentioned as we proceed into the same global conditions that destroyed the two settlements of medieval Norse Greenlanders about whom I write.

The Grim Reaper cometh; he will claim millions.

31 May 2008

Much Speculative Information Is Accepted As Fact


It is possible to find a supporting opinion for any contention one wishes to make regarding the demise of Eiriksfjord and Lysufjord, the two known medieval Norse settlements on Greenland.

However, it is important to realize while postulating that they disappeared completely. No European ever saw a Norse Greenlander again. According to the only credible record extant, a visitor from the Catholic Church, quoting Church records, stated that, "They joined the natives of Vinland in 1342." Helge Ingstad, The Viking Discovery of America, (Checkmark Books, 2001) 177-178.

Is that contention true? I have no idea and neither does anyone else.

Wherever they went they apparently took what supplies they needed with them, leaving a few head of their livestock grazing the pastures. There were no ships, tools, bodies- nothing remained. Gwyn Jones, The North Atlantic Saga, (Oxford University Press, 1986) 95-111.

The present day Inuit Greenlanders have been found to have Norse genetic markers. Someday perhaps, it will become necessary to begin DNA studies of Cree, Ojibwa, and Iroquois Indians for one reason or another. I believe further studies of these select North America Indian groups will finally provide an answer for all of us who still care about what happened to the medieval Norse Greenlanders. http://www.vinlandpublishing.com/

29 May 2008

Climate Change on Medieval Greenland


The causal factors for the demise of the Norse settlements at Eiriksfjord and Lysufjord, Greenland, around the beginning of the 15th century are no doubt many and varied. The people remaining in the settlements on Greenland would have seen their lifestyle steadily deteriorate and indeed their very existence become threatened as their winter weather continued to worsen.

Why these few residents continued to hang-on is unknown and unfathomable because the end of life as they knew it on the island must have been apparent to them as the Medieval Warm Period--about 800-1300--wound down and their lifestyle became unsustainable. If they did actually remain until the beginning of the 15th century (1425), as some hypothesize, the winter weather must have been awesome as the Mini-Ice Age--about 1300-1850--had already held the island in its grip for some 125-years, or one quarter of the 500-year climate cycle.

Of all the single-cause explanations for the death of Norse Greenland, climate change has been the most durable. (Thomas McGovern, Vikings, The North Atlantic Saga, The Demise of Norse Greenland, 2000-Smithsonian Institution, 330-331.)

Another factor, one that had little affect on the Inuit, or the Tuniit of the Dorset Culture, was certainly the Norse culture itself. The Northmen stubbornly adhered to their unsustainable lifestyle in the face of horrific weather conditions. http://www.vinlandpublishing.com/

They would not have waited, to die alone in the darkness of the long winter. Those few remaining in the Eastern Settlement at Eirksfjord finally abandoned Greenland, perhaps joining the former residents of the Western Settlement at Lysufjord, in Vinland.

25 May 2008

Climate Change


The intent of the RTIR (Radio TV Interview Report) ad that I commissioned, was exposure for my Axe of Iron series of novels to media for the purpose of obtaining live radio/TV interviews. That has happened, however; not as I intended. The interest that has been generated has to do more with climate change and less with my novels, therefore I must set the record straight.

I am not an environmentalist. I am a writer of historical fiction novels that focus exclusively on the medieval Norse Greenlanders. They did have an issue with climate change and that is the only climate change in which I have an interest because it sealed their fate on Greenland. We now know the climatic periods in which they lived as the Medieval Warm Period (700-1200AD) and the Mini-Ice Age (1200-1800). The weather in the northern hemisphere during the Medieval Warm Period(Medieval Climate Optimum) made the Viking Age (793-1200) possible. The changing weather around the end of the period was a causal factor in the end of the Viking Age. The winter weather in the northern hemisphere during the Mini-Ice Age(Maunder Minimum) became positively savage, making shipborne travel in the North Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea, the Baltic Sea, and all of their environs, impossible in winter and dicey in summer. The savage winter weather in the 19th century was at least partially responsible for the failure of Napoleon's Russian campaign. All this information is historical fact--look it up, I did.


So, for those of you beating the drum of human-caused global climate change I hope this missive clarifies my position for you. We humans do not affect the global climate, or anything else on that scale. "What is man, that thou art mindful of him?" Psalm 8:4.
Climate is controlled by the sun, not Homo sapiens. Sun cycles occur approximately every eleven years. Weather is cyclical and always has been. During 2011-12, the earth will be bombarded by the most intense Solar Max--solar wind, plasma--perhaps in history. How will this affect the earth? Nobody knows for certain, but it won't be fun.

The two weather cycles I have noted each occupied approximately 500-year periods. Assuming this cyclical trend continues, the earth will be at the halfway point of this cycle in about 2130. Based on history this cycle will be warm and dry. Will the icecaps melt? Certainly, to some extent. They did during the last warm/dry period. Will the polar bears and walrus survive? Who knows? We humans can't help them in any case. They will survive, or not. That is the way of things.

Long before we humans arrived on the scene such cycles occurred; they will continue with or without us. So don't fall prey to self-serving politicians and scientists with an agenda. Use your head, the facts are available if you seek them out. The discipline is called solar physics in reference to the sun and climatology in reference to the earth. Check it out!
http://www.vinlandpublishing.com/

20 May 2008

Reader Reviews: Axe of Iron-The Settlers


Our first book has received a number of good reviews. Find out what others have said: http://vinlandpublishing.com/index.php?page_id=277

After you read our book, please share your review here!

01 May 2008

The Vikings Can Teach Us About Climate Change


Extinction was the price the Viking settlers of Greenland paid for ignoring impending climate change and failing to adapt to a changing environment. Will the same thing happen to us?

Residents of two flourishing Viking settlements between the tenth and fifteenth centuries, the Norse Greenlanders had vanished from history by about 1425. Author and amateur historian J. A. Hunsinger says the Greenlanders have much to teach us if we will only listen.

Among these lessons are:
- Be proactive. The Greenlanders probably expected the weather to improve. Instead it got worse. They did not adapt.
- Adopt a sustainable lifestyle. The Greenlanders continued European-farming practices that exhausted the land.
- Learn from others. The Tuniit, and later in the 12th century, the Inuit, indigenous inhabitants of Greenland, thrived while the Greenlanders stubbornly kept to their Old Country ways—starvation loomed.
- Prepare a fallback position. The Greenlanders’ failure to plan left them two options: either starve or attempt to find a new home across the ocean to the West.

Credentials: J. A. Hunsinger is a retired airline pilot and technical writer. He portrays Vikings in a manner relevant to modern audiences. As far back as he can remember he has felt a powerful link with his Norse ancestors and an overwhelming need to tell their story. His character-driven Axe of Iron book series are works of fiction. Axe of Iron—The Settlers, (Vinland Publishing, 2008), begins the saga.

He utilizes actual Norse archaeological discoveries and mysteries associated with the pre-historical ancestors of North American Indian tribes to substantiate his theory that the Greenland Vikings assimilated with the natives and settled in North America centuries before Columbus.

The medieval Norse Greenlanders did not linger on Greenland as the weather worsened with the coming Mini-Ice Age, most had already moved to North America by the beginning of the 14th century.


* Ad copy edited by J. A. Hunsinger, from the original by Liz Milner, RTIR