30 July 2017

Archaeologists Uncover Viking Army Camp in England

There have been several articles from a number of sources on this large Viking town, or winter camp in England. Each has a little different take on the site, new photos, and new theories to digest.

So, here is another for your edification. (Ed.)

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Archaeologists Uncover Viking Army Camp in England

May 19, 2017 by News Staff / SourAD

A long-held archaeological mystery has been solved as researchers have revealed the exact location, extent and character of a huge winter camp of the Viking army at Torksey, Lincolnshire, of AD 872-873.

A 21st-ADntury view looking east across the River Trent to the prominent bluff and the Viking winter camp. Image credit: Dawn Hadley & Julian Richards / Antiquaries Journal, doi: 10.1017/S0003581516000718.
The Vikings established the winter camp at Torksey, on the banks of the River Trent in Lincolnshire, as they prepared to conquer 9th Century England, according to a team of archaeologists from the Universities of Sheffield and York, UK.
The camp was used by thousands of Viking warriors, women and children who lived there temporarily in tented accommodation.
They also used the site as a base to repair ships, melt down stolen loot, manufacture, trade and play games.

“The Vikings’ camp at Torksey was much more than just a handful of hardy warriors — this was a huge base, larger than most contemporary towns, complete with traders, families, feasting, and entertainment,” said team leader Professor Dawn Hadley, from the University of Sheffield.
“From what has been found at the site, we know they were repairing their boats there and melting down looted gold and silver to make ingots — or bars of metal they used to trade.”

“The Vikings had previously often raided exposed coastal monasteries and returned to Scandinavia in winter, but in the later 9th century they came in larger numbers, and decided to stay,” said team member Professor Julian Richards, from the University of York.
“This sent a very clear message that they now planned not only to loot and raid — but to control and conquer.”

The exact location and scale of the Vikings’ camp in Lincolnshire has been debated for decades. It is now thought to be at least 55 hectares in size, bigger than many towns and cities of the time, including York.

There have also been more than a thousand finds by metal detectorists and archaeologists, including several hundreds of coins.

A selection of metal-detected finds from the Viking winter camp at Torksey, UK. Image credit: Fitzwilliam Museum / Dawn Hadley & Julian Richards / Antiquaries Journal, doi: 10.1017/S0003581516000718.
“It is the metalwork and, specifically, the coinage, that allows the assemblage to be dated so precisely and which confirms this as the site of the Viking winter camp of AD 872-873,” Prof. Hadley, Prof. Richards and co-authors explained.

“More than 350 early medieval coins have been recovered, including 40 English silver pennies, with a notable concentration from the 860s and early 870s, which is striking given that coin finds of the early 9th century are generally more prolific than those of the middle and later parts of the century.”

“Remarkably, there are also more than 170 Northumbrian copper-alloy stycas, which did not circulate widely outside Northumbria and are generally only recovered in Lincolnshire as single finds.”
“There are also 124 dirhams from Torksey, the largest concentration on any insular site. These had all been cut into smaller fractions, indicating that they had been retained for their silver content rather than their monetary value.”
“These dirhams had clearly been brought to England from the Middle East via Scandinavia, and similar concentrations of dirhams have been found at Scandinavian trading centers such as Birka in Sweden and Kaupang in Norway.”

More than 50 pieces of chopped up silver, including brooch fragments and ingots have been found along with rare hackgold.

Evidence has been found that these items were being processed at the camp — chopped up to be melted down.

Other finds include the 300 gaming pieces, iron tools, spindle whorls, needles and fishing weights.
“Metal detectorists have also found more than 300 lead game pieces, suggesting the Vikings, including, women and children, were spending a lot of time playing games to pass the time, waiting for spring and the start of their next offensive,” Prof. Hadley said.

The research was recently published in the Antiquaries Journal.
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Dawn M. Hadley & Julian D. Richards. 2016. The Winter Camp of the Viking Great Army, AD 872–3, Torksey, Lincolnshire. Antiquaries Journal 96: 23-67; doi: 10.1017/S0003581516000718


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