31 May 2020

1,000-Year-Old Buried Viking Ship Will be Raised!


Here is a follow-on article from Ancient Origins on the Viking ship burial found in Norway.

I posted the first article on this blog on the subject back in January, 2020.

Archaeologists and the Norwegian government intend to excavate the site to save the ship from impending destruction by natural events. (Ed.)

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6 MAY, 2020 - 16:33 ED WHELAN
  
Norwegian archaeologists have announced a plan to raise a buried Viking ship from the earth. The vessel is from a ship burial that is over 1000 years old. It is the first time in over a hundred years that a buried Viking ship has been excavated. But the experts have declared the excavation necessary and are in a race against time to salvage and preserve the very rare and important vessel.

The Gjellestad Viking Ship was found near Halden in southern Norway in 2018. It was discovered during a georadar survey , conducted by NIKU, overseen by Knut Pasche. Georadar technology allowed researchers to scan and image the vessel that had been buried here sometime between the 8th and the 10th century AD. They determined that it measures 65 feet (19.8 meters) and is made of oak.

Live Science quotes Sigrid Mannasaker Gunderson, an archaeologist with the local county, that the “vessel was likely made for travelling long distances at sea.” It is possible that it once had a mast and oars. Images show that there may be grave goods in one section of the buried ship.



02 May 2020

The History of Vikings in Derbyshire

From the Derbyshire Life and Countryside, UK, comes this interesting article on what archaeological information is gleaned from the coins contained in Viking coin hoards. (Ed.)

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Derbyshire

Part of the Tutbury coin hoard, British Museum

The History of Vikings in Derbyshire

Coins are ‘very small texts’ for Dr Gareth Williams, curator of early medieval coins and Viking material at the British Museum. They are full of clues to the history of a particular period and he can read them like a book. A historian by profession, he says the joy of working in a museum as opposed to a university department is that you can share your knowledge with a much wider range of people – a passion for communication that he shares with his wife, Lesley Smith, curator of Tutbury Castle.

We’re at Tutbury on a winter’s day, with the rain falling and the ancient castle wreathed in mist. Dr Williams has come into prominence at this particular time in relation to the large Viking hoard of gold jewellery, a silver ingot and coins discovered by two amateur metal detectorists in Herefordshire in 2015. The finders, George Powell and Layton Davies, were convicted and jailed in November last year for failing to declare the find as the law demands; for attempting to sell items from the hoard – only 30 coins have been recovered, along with the jewellery – and for denying that they had secreted coins worth millions.

The hoard was hidden in all likelihood by a Viking warrior as his army retreated into the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Mercia following the victory of Alfred the Great in the year 878. Such hoards were generally buried for safety and ‘because the Vikings did not always trust each other’, Dr Williams suggests. ‘Alliances could change and members of an army could later find themselves on the opposite side, so it was worth burying your wealth when you were encamped, even if it was just overnight.’


He cheerfully confesses to a mixture of huge excitement and ‘a bit of irritation’ when he learned of the hoard in that summer of 2015: excitement because initial reports suggested it was something very special, and irritation because he was working on a book about hoards and the last thing he wanted was another one which ‘could upset everything you have got straight in your head…’. It didn’t do that. What the coins did, he rejoices, was to establish a clear connection between two kings, Alfred the Great, King of Wessex from 871-879, and Ceolwulf II (874-879), one of the lesser known kings of the independent kingdom of Mercia.

Read more...

23 April 2020

Meet Ratatoskr, mischievous messenger squirrel to the Viking gods


This is a total departure for this blog, but archaeology is not active at the moment, so some Norse mythology may be called for because we seem to be living a nightmare of mythic proportion on planet Earth. (Ed.)

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Meet Ratatoskr, mischievous messenger squirrel to the Viking gods

A depiction of Ratatoskr in a 17th-century illuminated manuscript.
A depiction of Ratatoskr in a 17th-century illuminated manuscript. (Johanna Olafsdottir)


By 
Columnist
April 13, 2020 at 2:05 p.m. MDT

When one ponders the case of Ratatoskr, the most celebrated squirrel in Norse mythology, one must eventually confront a question: Why is there a horn growing out of his forehead?

You can see it in a 17th-century illuminated manuscript in the collection of the Arni Magnusson Institute for Icelandic Studies in Reykjavik. A drawing shows the symbol around which all Norse mythology is organized: the famed Ygdrasil, or World Tree. The tree is populated by various fearsome creatures. At the bottom left is Ratatoskr, looking like a dog with a horn coming straight out of his noggin.

“We have no text to explain [this] for us,” said Gisli Sigurdsson, a professor in the department of folklore at the University of Iceland’s Magnusson Institute.

We will speculate about that horn in a bit, but first, a crash course in Norse mythology and the role a squirrel plays in it: The Viking age began around A.D. 800 and ended about 300 years later. During that time, Norsemen (and women) poured forth from Scandinavia, pillaging and colonizing their way across Britain, through the scattered islands of the North Atlantic, into Iceland and Greenland and venturing as far as North America.

04 April 2020

Fantastic Voyages: Myth, Legend, and the Recreation of Ancient Boats


This excerpt comes from an article in Deeper Blue, a SCUBA diving travel publication. I encourage the reader to click one of the links I have provided to read the entire article. The author did a good job, and her article is very interesting. (Ed.)

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by Gemma Smith
March 12, 2020
 
Viking Long ship
 The ancient Vikings have long been admired both for their daring and their expertise in boatbuilding. There have been several modern reconstructions of Viking boats including the 30 meter (98 ft) long Sea Stallion which sailed in 2007 successfully from the Danish port of Roskilde 900 miles to Dublin, Ireland. It landed to a much warmer welcome than its predecessors had evoked more than 1000 years before! The Skjoldungen, a replica of the Skudelev 6 discovered sunk in Roskilde fjord, Denmark in 1962 sailed up the southwest coast of Greenland as part of an experimental archaeology trip.

Perhaps the most ambitious expedition of these Viking reconstructions was undertaken by the Draken Harald Harfagre (Dragon Harald Fairhair, after a Norwegian king) in 2016. This ship set sail from Norway across the North Atlantic bound for Iceland, Greenland, Canada and the USA. A reconstruction of a Viking ‘great ship’ it carried a crew of 32 men and women of varying nationalities. The Draken Harald Harfagre is an open, clinker-built ship 35 meters (115 ft) from stem to stern, the largest reconstruction of a Viking-era ship to date. One of the aims of its builders was to explore the world as the Vikings did in the past, following the journey of the famous Leif Erikson who is believed by some to be the first European to land in America. The Draken’s landfall in Newfoundland was at St Anthony’s Harbour near the site of the Viking-era settlement at L’anse aux Meadows.



28 March 2020

Top 5 places that were raided by Vikings in Ireland


This very interesting article excerpt on the Vikings in Ireland is from a travel company, IB4UD, Ireland Before You Die, and it lists most if not all the important Viking sites in Ireland. (Ed.)

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By

It’s believed that the first Vikings in Ireland arrived on Irish shores around the late 8th century and repeatedly invaded the Irish coastline from the 9th to the 11th century.



While it’s true that the Vikings terrorized the Irish people during their 9th to 11th-century raids on Irish towns and monasteries, they also had an undeniable and significant role in shaping and influencing many of Ireland’s largest cities which, still to this day, have strong links and ties to the Vikings.

In this article, we will list what we believe are the top five places that were raided by Vikings in Ireland.


Glendalough, Wicklow – one of Ireland’s most ancient monastic sites


Glendalough is an ancient monastic site that is located in the stunning Wicklow National Park. The monastery became a target for a widescale Viking invasion in the 9th century as the Vikings raided the monastic city in the hopes of finding valuable relics.

While this Viking raid resulted in the destruction of many sites on the monastery, Glendalough as a whole survived and continued to remain one of Ireland’s most important ancient monastic sites.
Glendalough is still a popular tourist attraction to this day and attracts thousands of visitors every year.



21 March 2020

Vikings in Ireland


I have featured other articles from Ancient Origins in the past about the incredible archaeology going on under S. Great George's Street, Dublin, Ireland, and here's another good one for your reading pleasure.

They have unearthed a great deal of artifacts from the site in the recent past, now, here is another wrinkle on the subject of Vikings in Ireland. (Ed.)  

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Recent Discoveries Shedding New Light on the Fearsome Warriors that Invaded Irish Shores


20 MARCH, 2019 - 16:49 JOANNA GILLAN

As science progresses and archaeologists are forging new positive relationships with developers around Irish heritage, more secrets from Ireland’s Viking past are coming to light, and they are not just found in burial grounds, unearthed dwellings, and old settlements; they can be found in the DNA of the modern-day Irish people.

The Vikings may have only been present in Ireland for three centuries – a drop in the ocean compared to its long and dramatic history – but recent research is showing that their influence was far greater than previously realized.

The Viking Age in Ireland – Do We Need to Revise the Textbooks?
The Viking Age in Ireland is typically seen to have begun with the first recorded raid in 795 AD, taking a turning point in 841 AD when the first settlements were established in Dublin and Annagassan near Dundalk, and ending in 1014 AD with the Viking defeat at the Battle of Clontarf by the Irish High King Brian Boru (although the Vikings continued to play a role in Ireland’s history until the arrival of the Normans in 1171 AD).

Recent archaeological discoveries in Dublin have been raising questions about whether this timeline is accurate, hinting that there may be a lot more to the story. In 2003, excavations were underway as part of the expansion of the Dunnes Stores headquarters on Dublin’s South Great George’s Street, when archaeologists found the bodies of four Vikings aged between their late teens and late twenties.


11 March 2020

1500-year old Viking arrowhead found

It's a shame that many journalists think it necessary to beat the drum of climate change as being responsible for a changing climate.

Hello - that is what climate has done for all the thousands of years that we have a record of, it changes, so I agree with that part.

Anyway, this excerpt from the UK's Daily Mail is good, and way better than all the others written by hand-wringing, left-wing infected, competitive journalists from other publications, about the artifacts found as a result of catastrophic, climate change induced, glacier meltdown. (Ed.)

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Viking's 1,500-year-old arrowhead that was preserved in ice is discovered after climate change melts Norwegian glacier


 
An ancient arrowhead dating back to the Germanic Iron Age was discovered in southern Norway, along with its arrow shaft and one of the feather in glaciers locate in southern Norway.

Archaeologist uncovered a 1,500-year-old iron arrowhead in the Norway glacier Jotunheimen
This team investigates melting glaciers in the country to find such  relics - they have found more than 2,000

The arrowhead  dates back to the Germanic Iron Age, is seven inches long and weighs a little over an ounce
PUBLISHED: 16:23 EDT, 6 March 2020 | UPDATED: 16:23 EDT, 6 March 2020
Climate change has revealed a Viking's missed shot that laid hidden in a glacier for 1,500 years.

The arrowhead, made of iron, is seven inches long and weighs just a little over an ounce – and melted at the ice at one mile.

Archaeologists involved noted that climate change has made its way to the Jotunheimen glacier, which is warming temperature sand melting the ice – allowing the artifacts to be set free from their icy cage.



29 February 2020

Mysterious Tombs of Medieval Warriors Revealed Their Secrets

An excerpt from a SOMAG News article with more info on the graves of the four Viking warriors recently found in Poland, (Ed.)

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Viking Graves in Poland
Mysterious Tombs of Medieval Warriors Revealed Their Secrets
By Matthew Cage
January 30, 2020

Four warrior graves were found in archaeological excavations in Poland. The tombs in the medieval room are thought to belong to an elite group of soldiers. For many civilizations in the Middle Ages, soldiers were among the upper class people.

Four mysterious tombs discovered in Poland reveal the secrets of medieval warriors. According to researchers, the 11th-century tombs were found in a cemetery in the village of Ciepłe in northern Poland. Analyzing the remains and items buried with soldiers, experts discovered that the warriors were of Scandinavian origin.

Dr. from the Gdańsk Archeology Museum. “There were four very richly equipped graves in the middle of the cemetery. They were probably warriors, given the guns and riding equipment found next to their bodies,” Sławomir Wadyl said. According to Wadyl, those buried in the central part of the cemetery represented the elites in social life, as evidenced by the structure of their tombs and equipment.

Read more...

18 February 2020

Viking Ulfberht Sword



This week we have featured an article from Ancient Origins about a very famous sword, perhaps made by Viking smiths, composed of a steel difficult to replicate today. 

This may be the most famous sword blade of the Viking era, but it is thought that the steel that was forged into these magnificent blades originated in the Rhineland of Germany, not Scandinavia.(Ed.)


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Viking Ulfberht Sword
Viking Ulfberht blades were forged with crucible steel and have the curious inscription ‘VLFBERHT' on the blade. Dated between the ninth and 11th centuries, according to an article on War History , today’s best blacksmiths have had a hard time reproducing this material, which is more superior to what is found in average medieval swords. The sharpness of the blades means wielders could easily cut through bones and lower-quality weapons with one blow, which raises the question, 'How did Viking warriors develop such an advanced sword with such a pure metal that was hundreds of years ahead of the Viking technologies of the time?



Ulfberht sword (ninth century), found in 1960 in the Old Rhine close to Friesenheimer Insel, Mannheim. Germanic National Museum in Nuremberg. ( Anagoria/ CC BY-SA 3.0)

The scientists who have tested the swords calculated that crucible steel, with its high carbon content (up to 1.2%) meant it was necessary to have heated the metals to a temperature of 1,600° C. This indicates the Ulfberhts were about 800 years ahead of European methods of achieving such high temperatures, which were not figured out until the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century.

Read more…

09 February 2020

Roman Coin Found in Norway

Discovery of a Roman coin in northern Norway from the time of Emperor Marcus Aurelius is detailed in an article excerpt from Sputnik News.

Not only does archaeology not know how far the Roman Empire extended into the north, they don't know how far one of Earth's greatest civilizations went in any other direction. Most discoveries made over the centuries gave archaeologists enough information that they could give the public an educated guess on what it all means.

A guess is something you might have to take back at some point, and that is the case here. (Ed.)

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Roman coin from the time of Emperor Marcus Aurelius

Roman Coin Found in Northern Norway May Redraw Historic Trade Map
© CC0
SOCIETY
06:33 GMT 20.01.2020


The Roman coin was found only 15 centimetres deep in the soil; it dates back to the time of Emperor Marcus Aurelius and is the northernmost find of its kind, signalling that trade contacts in the area date back to the Iron Age.

In just a few days, hobby archaeologist Ben-Harry Johansen found a 2,000-year-old coin and a richly decorated 1,000-year-old Viking sword at Våg in the municipality of Dønna on the Helgeland coast, national broadcaster NRK reported.

“The coin lay only 15 centimetres into the earth, in the so-called plough layer, where people with metal detectors are allowed to search,” Ben-Harry Johansen recalled with excitement.

Researchers described finds of this calibre as extremely rare, especially at the amateur level.

According to Caroline Fredriksen, a research fellow at the Department of Archaeology and Cultural History at the Science Museum at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, both the coin and the sword are very important finds.
“The sword is special because it has decor with silver and copper inlay. Most people did not possess such great swords in the Viking Age. And the coin is the northernmost Roman coin we have found in Norway,” Fredriksen told NRK.

Ben-Harry Johansen's coin dates back to the time of Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius (121-180 AD), according to Fredriksen. Marcus Aurelius, also a Stoic philosopher, ruled from 161 to 180 and was the last of the “Five Good Emperors”, as well as the last emperor of the Pax Romana, an age of relative peace and stability for the Roman Empire.
“This finding suggests that Dønna had international contacts as early as the Iron Age. The findings show that Nordland was part of the Iron Age trade network,” Fredriksen concluded.

According to the research, metal detectors used for hobby purposes are becoming increasingly trendy in Norway, and the metal search associations are reporting increasing interest. This is reflected in the the number of historical discoveries that increased dramatically over the past decade. This, in turn, has raised objections from a number of professionals, as well as the police.

“In Norway, metal searching is legal, as long as you follow the Cultural Heritage Act, and are complying with the the guidelines for private metal searching,” Frederiksen explained, suggesting that there are arguments to be made for and against hobby archaeology.

37-year-old Ben-Harry Johansen and his friends go on trips with metal detectors as often as they can, but they say it's a time-consuming hobby. Still, he has found several objects of interest, including a silver bracelet, an axe and a lead cross with a runic inscription.

“I am interested in history, and there has been great activity by Vikings here on the island. Here, among other things, there is a boat tomb and several burial mounds, which I find interesting,” Johansen said. “As in Dønna, for example, where the objects found can say something about the wealth and social status of the place, but also who the people here were in contact with”.

03 February 2020

Viking Graves Found in Poland

The following excerpt from a Polish FirstNews article, regards the finding of graves containing four Viking warriors that purportedly came to northern Poland from Denmark about 1000-years ago. (Ed.)

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Viking Graves Found in Poland

The graves were found in a medieval cemetery in the village of Ciepłe, northern Poland.Z. Ratajczak
Archeologists find VIKING graves in Polish village
HISTORY | LIFE
ANNE CHATHAM JANUARY 24, 2020

Archaeologists in northern Poland have made an unexpected discovery: certain local graves from the Middle Ages belonged to warriors from Scandinavia.

The discovery was made in a medieval cemetery in the village of Ciepłe, in the Pomeranian region in northern Poland.

Some of the graves are around 1,000 years old; they belong to people who lived during the reign of Bolesław the Brave, the first King of Poland, who lived from 967 to 1025.

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Archaeology news: Researchers in Poland uncovered the remains of four Scandinavian warriors (Image: J. Szmit/Z. Ratajczyk)

28 January 2020

Rot Hastens Viking Ship's Excavation

This article excerpt comes to us from Norway - newsinenglish.no - where archaeologists have located another Viking ship burial. The difference this time is that Norway has not excavated a complete Viking Age ship in 114-years, and this one was found using ground penetrating radar - Georadar. Now that is definitely noteworthy.

Scientists hope to excavate the entire area as soon as possible out of fears that the ship could be lost due to rot, and to discover what else may be buried there. I can hardly wait for more on this developing story. (Ed.)

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January 20, 2020

Archaeologists and Norway’s director of cultural heritage are calling for rapid excavation of a Viking ship found buried in a field at Gjellestad near Halden in the fall of 2018. They’ve won initial support from government officials, setting the stage for what could be the first full-scale Viking ship excavation in Norway for 114 years.

Preliminary excavation work at the Viking ship site at Gjellestad was carried out late last summer. Now experts recommend a full-scale dig of the entire area.
PHOTO: Riksantikvaren/Lene Buskoven

“A Viking ship is so important for Norwegian history, and we have an international responsibility here,” said Ola Elvestuen, government minister in charge of culture and the environment, just after test results from the site were presented on Friday. They were extracted during careful and preliminary digging around the vessel in August and September of last year.
Samples from the so-called “Gjellestad-ship’s” keel found last year have revealed signs of mildew or dry rot, indicating that the vessel could rapidly deteriorate if left in the ground. The overall condition of the ship was described as poor.
“When it’s no longer an alternative to take care of the vessel by letting it remain in the ground, this is no longer about how much of the ship should be dug out, but about when, how and to what degree it should be done,” Elvestuen added. He fears, along with the experts, that much of the vessel may rot away unless a major excavation gets underway “in the course of quite a short time.”
Project leader Christian Glorstad of the University of Oslo’s Museum of Cultural History showed a sample of the Viking ship to Environment Minister Ola Elvestuen and Riksantikvar Hanna Geiran, Norway’s director general of cultural monuments. PHOTO: KMD
The vessel’s discovery through the use of georadar made international news in the fall of 2018. It’s believed to have been buried along with a Viking chief referred to in one of the sagas as “King Jell” in the area that’s also believed to contain five Viking langhus (literally, long houses that housed both people and animals) and at least 10 burial mounds. Two of the houses date from the years 400-500 while the ship has been linked to the early Viking period that ran from around 800-1050AD. Archaeologists have dated it to 733AD at the earliest.


11 January 2020

The First Vikings


Archaeology magazine alluded to this 2013 article with their article of "Possible Viking-Era Grave Discovered in Estonia," published on Tuesday, December 10, 2019. Since the 2013 article contains all the data of discovery, I include it alone. (Ed.)

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(Courtesy Liina Maldre, University of Tallinn)

The carefully stacked remains of 33 men were buried in the ship that brought them from Scandinavia to an Estonian island more than a century before the Vikings are thought to have been able to sail across such distances.



The First Vikings


Two remarkable ships may show that the Viking storm was brewing long before their assault on England and the continent

By ANDREW CURRY

July/August 2013

(Courtesy Liina Maldre, University of Tallinn)

The carefully stacked remains of 33 men were buried in the ship that brought them from Scandinavia to an Estonian island more than a century before the Vikings are thought to have been able to sail across such distances.

According to historians, the Viking Age began on June 8, A.D. 793, at an island monastery off the coast of northern England. A contemporary chronicle recorded the moment with a brief entry: “The ravages of heathen men miserably destroyed God’s church on Lindisfarne, with plunder and slaughter.” The “heathen men” were Vikings, fierce warriors who sailed from Scandinavia and bore down on their prey in Europe and beyond in sleek, fast-sailing ships. In the centuries that followed, the Vikings’ vessels carried them deep into Russia and as far south as Constantinople, Sicily, and possibly even North Africa. They organized flotillas capable of carrying warriors across vast distances, and terrorized the English, Irish, and French coasts with lightning-fast raids. Exploratory voyages to the west took them all the way to North America.

The Vikings’ explosion across Europe and Asia and into the Americas was the result of the right combination of tools, technology, adventurousness, and ferocity. They came to be known as an unstoppable force capable of raiding and trading on four continents, yet our understanding of what led up to that June day on Lindisfarne is surprisingly shaky. A recent discovery on a remote Baltic island is beginning to change that. Two ships filled with slain warriors uncovered on the Estonian island of Saaremaa may help archaeologists and historians understand how the Vikings’ warships evolved from short-range, rowed craft to sailing ships; where the first warriors came from; and how their battle tactics developed. “We all agree these burials are Scandinavian in origin,” says Marge Konsa, an archaeologist at the University of Tartu. “This is our first taste of the Viking era.”

Between them, the two boats contain the remains of dozens of men. Seven lay haphazardly in the smaller of the two boats, which was found first. Nearby, in the larger vessel, 33 men were buried in a neat pile, stacked like wood, together with their weapons and animals. The site seems to be a hastily arranged mass grave, the final resting place for Scandinavian warriors killed in an ill-fated raid on Saaremaa, or perhaps waylaid on a remote beach by rivals. The archaeologists believe the men died in a battle some time between 700 and 750, perhaps almost as much as a century before the Viking Age officially began. This was an era scholars call the Vendel period, a transitional time not previously known for far-reaching voyages—or even for sails. The two boats themselves bear witness to the tremendous technological transformations in the eighth-century Baltic.

In 2008, workers digging trenches for electrical cables in the tiny island town of Salme uncovered human bones and a variety of odd objects that they unceremoniously piled next to their trench. Local authorities at first assumed the remains belonged to a luckless WWII soldier, until Konsa arrived and recognized a spearhead and carved-bone gaming pieces among the artifacts, clear signs the remains belonged to someone from a much earlier conflict. Together with a small team, Konsa dug a little deeper and soon found traces of a boat’s hull. Nearly all of the craft’s timber had rotted away, leaving behind only discolorations in the soil. But 275 of the iron rivets holding the boat together remained in place, allowing the researchers to reconstruct the outlines of the 38-foot-long craft.

Soon Konsa realized she had found something unique for this place and period. “This isn’t a fishing boat, it’s a war boat,” Konsa says. “It’s quite fast and narrow, and also quite light.” Based on radiocarbon dating of tiny fragments of boat timbers, Konsa estimates the vessel was built between 650 and 700, and perhaps repaired and patched for decades before making its final voyage. It had no sail, and would have been rowed for short stretches along the Baltic coast, or between islands to make the journey from Scandinavia to the seafarers’ hunting grounds farther east. From bones found inside the boat, Konsa pieced together the remains of the seven men, all between the ages of 18 and 45. She also found knives, whetstones, and a bone comb among the remains. The craft was a remarkable find—the first such boat ever recovered in Estonia, complete with the bodies of its slain crew.

Read more...

05 January 2020

Mysterious double Viking boat burial discovered


From FoxNews, more on the archaeological discovery in Norway. (Ed.)


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Mysterious double Viking boat burial discovered



A mysterious double Viking boat burial has been discovered in Norway, intriguing experts.


An artist's illustration of the older grave, which dates to the 8th century A.D. (Illustration: Arkikon)

Last month archaeologists excavating a site at Vinjeroa in central Norway uncovered the boat grave of a woman who died in the second half of the 9th century. Shell-shaped gilded bronze brooches and a crucifix-shaped brooch fashioned from an Irish harness fitting were found in the grave, along with a pearl necklace, two pairs of scissors, part of a spindle and a cow’s skull, according to the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU).

Archaeologists, however, were surprised to find that, instead of digging a new grave for the woman, she and her boat were placed inside a larger boat grave from 100 years earlier. The larger boat, which measures between 29.5 feet and 32.8 feet long, contains the remains of a man who was buried with his weapons.

While most of the wood from the boats has rotted away, their rivets were still in position, so archaeologists were able to identify the double boat burial. The man had been buried with a spear, a shield and a shingle-edged sword.